2014高三語法精講:名詞性從句講解(3)

2019-07-01 14:54:53

Ⅲ)賓語從句
①及物動詞、動詞短語、部分系表結構以及介詞都可以后帶一個賓語從句。
介詞的賓語從句通常是由疑問詞引導的,只有少數固定搭配的短語里面使用that引導的賓語從句,如:in that(在于 ……,因為 ……),but that(只是 ……,要不是 ……),except that(除了 ……,除外 ……)等。
經常引導賓語從句的詞有:that,whether,if,what(ever),which(ever),who(ever),whom(ever),whose,how,when,where,why等,意義和用法與主語從句和表語從句類似。
She promised that she would come and see him sometimes,and that she would never forget him.
Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from what their parents speak at home.
Please remind me when he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off.
I wonder if / whether I can get some advice from you.
We often go to the country for our holidays because it does not cost much to enjoy what is beautiful in the country.
Susan hasn’t changed. I don’t think she looks any different from how she did three years ago.
--- Did Mr.Smith attend the meeting?
--- Yes. He listened so carefully and was interested in whatever we discussed.
Pick out which toy you would like to have.
I’ll take whichever fits the sockets.
Who do you think he is?
I don’t know who / whom he gave it to.
They should enjoy complete freedom to marry whomever they might desire.
He didn’t know why he had answered in that fashion.
The student was praised for what he had done.
He usually goes to school by bike except when it rains.
I knew little about him except that he was an American.
I would have come to see you but that I had something urgent to do then.
I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.
We’re delighted (that) you get good grades in school.
We aren’t sure whether / if we can persuade him out of smoking.
②有些賓語從句可以前置。
That I suffered in secret no one ever knew but I. (賓語從句前置)
--- I’d like to invite you to a concert this evening.
--- Thank you,but whether I’ll have time I’m not sure at the moment. (賓語從句前置)
③引導賓語從句的that不能省略的情況:
1)that引導的賓語從句之前有一個間接賓語時;
She reminded me that I had a meeting to attend that evening.
2)that引導的賓語從句與主要謂語動詞之間有插入成分時;
I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.
I believed, too, that I had never listened so attentively.
3)that引導的賓語從句后移,在其位置上使用形式賓語it時;
I took it for granted that they were not coming.
4)that引導的賓語從句做部分介詞(如:except,but等)的賓語時;
The Swede stood quite still, except that his lips moved slightly.
5)用and,but等連接兩個或者兩個以上賓語從句時,為了避免歧義,第一個that可以省略,但其余的不能省略。
Abraham Lincoln told his people that the living must finish the work of those dead; that they must fight for freedom for all--- Negroes and Whites; that America must strengthen government of the people, by the people and for the people.
④“命令,主張,建議,要求,愿望,決定”等動詞之后的賓語從句,其謂語部分經常使用“(should)+ 原形動詞”。
Someone suggested that the chairman (should) make the decision at once.
The doctor insists that his patients (should) discuss the matter.
Yesterday the railway workers in France demanded that their pay (should) be raised from the following week.
The commander ordered that his men (should) march 50 kilometers during the night.
He asked that she (should) leave.
注意:
1)suggest 作“說明了,暗示出”解釋時,賓語從句的謂語部分要使用陳述語氣。(其主語一般不是表示“人”的名詞或代詞。)
On the boy′s pale face there was a half-smile that seemed to suggest that he was happy to have given his life for his country.
2)insist 不作“堅決主張(主張某種動作或行為)”而作“堅持認為,堅持說(陳述某種觀點或意見)”解釋時,賓語從句的謂語部分要使用陳述語氣。
The Arab insisted that he had never seen the camel.
He insisted that Mary was not to blame.
She insisted that she was right.
3)ask作“問”解釋時,賓語從句(多由疑問詞而不是that來引導)的謂語部分要使用陳述語氣。
He asked whose dictionary this was.
⑤特殊的插入語:
英語中有一類動詞,如think,believe,guess,suggest,expect,suppose,imagine等,用在疑問句中,如果后帶一個由疑問詞(或疑問詞所修飾限制的名詞)引導的賓語從句時,常常把引導賓語從句的疑問詞提至句首。我們稱之為“干涉性”插入語。
When and where do you think we will hold the League meeting?
Who do you suggest (should) be sent to work in the fire-stricken area?
Who do you suppose telephoned today?
Which team do you believe will win the football match?
What do you guess they will do next?
Why can you imagine people speak against her?
疑問詞(或疑問詞所修飾限制的名詞)提至句首時,賓語從句的其它成分語序不變,若疑問詞(或疑問詞所修飾限制的名詞)用作主語時,上述動詞之后所放置的應該是賓語從句的謂語部分:
What do you think has happened to Jenny?
Who did you suggest (should )go with us tomorrow?
這類插入語在陳述句中也總是置于引導從句的疑問詞(或疑問詞所修飾限制的名詞)之后:
He asked me what I thought should be considered doing first.
We asked the teacher which group he believed would be chosen to complete the task.

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